Yu.E. Berezkin, E.N. Duvakin

Thematic classification and distribution of folklore and mythological motifs by area

Analytical catalogue

Ethnicities and habitats

I27. Dog of the Land of the Dead.

. (.35.) .36.-.

A dog and/or (rarely) a domestic cat is the owner, guardian of the land of the dead, a guide on the way there, dogs live on their way to the land of the dead. (For indirect evidence and similar beliefs, see also Benson 1991).

Dogon, Ancient Egypt, Scots, Germans (north?) , Kiwai, Camano, d'Antrecasteau, Nguna, Rengma, Ao, Sema, Ancient India (Rigveda), Western India, Pulaya, Khyengi, Senoi (Besisi), (Nias), Clementane, Toraja, Visayas, Chinese (Shandong, Jiangsu), Meo, Ancient Greece, Bulgarians, Albanians, Romanians, Russians (Yaroslavl, Novgorod), Kalmyks, Abkhazians, Karachays, Georgians (Ingiloyans), Avesta, Finns, Veps (?) , Komi, Udmurts (?) , Mari, Chuvash, Tofalars, Tuvans, South Altai Tuvans, Altaians, (Oirats, Wuhuans, Selkups? , Mansi?) , Evenks of Manchuria, Nanai, Manchus, Udege, Nivkh, Ainu, Chukchi, Koryaks, Itelmen, Tundra and Forest (?) Yukaghirs, Labrador Eskimos, West Greenland, Ingalic, Tlingit, Menominee, Winnebago, Western and Eastern Ojibwa, Northern Soltos, New England Algonquins, Delaware, Hurons, Iroquois, Shawns, Chirokees, Huichol, Cora, Aztecs and others Nahuas, Otomi, Totonaki, Zapotecs, Mixtecs, Masateki, Mihe, Tsotzil, Lacandons, Hikake, Miskito, Rama, Talamanca, Kogi, Yupa, Kalinha, Lokono, Taulipan, Shuar, Letuama, Huanca, Quechua from central and southern Peru, Aymara, Ashaninka, Machigenga, Shipibo, Sherente.

West Africa. Dogon [on the way to the afterlife of Manga, located on the SV, the soul meets a rooster who wants to stop it; he must throw the millet given by the old woman; then the dog blocks the way, she should be given milk from a cow that a Fulbe woman grazed]: Palau Marti 1957, No. 45:67.

North Africa. Ancient Egypt [Greek. Anubis, Egypt Inpu, the patron saint of the dead, was revered as a lying black jackal or a wild dog Sub (or as a man with the head of a jackal or dog); the center of the cult was the city of Casa (Greek. Kinopol, "the City of the Dog"); during the Ancient Kingdom it was considered the god of the dead; according to the Texts of the Pyramids, he counted the hearts of the dead; since the end of the 3rd millennium BC, A.'s functions passed to Osiris]: Rubinstein 1980c: 89.

Western Europe. Scots [the monk asks Old Beare (Cailleach Bhearach) if she is really that old, asks her for the most unusual thing she saw; she talks about how she once milked cows with her daughter; It was raining, a woman white as a swan passed by like a gust of wind; soon two huge mastiffs appeared, followed by the wagon, with the Devil sitting in it; he said that the woman had committed a mortal sin with a priest (put a scandal on a priest); if she reaches the gates of heaven, St. A virgin will stand up for her in front of her son, and if the dogs catch up with her sooner, she will go to hell]: Hull 1927:231-233; Germans (north?) [below heaven itself are "dog skies" for loyal dogs]: Schlerath 1954:27-28, 31 in Litvinsky, Sedov 1984:165.

Melanesia. Kiwai [thunder is the barking of the Bígama and Wáuri dogs owned by Marúnogére; in the land of the dead, Adiri they bark about the arrival of every new soul]: Landtman 1927:311-312; kamano [a little girl is passed off as an adult man; he is killed in combat, her parents go to a wake without saying anything to the girl; she breaks her brothers' toy dam twice; angry , they tell her what happened; she goes to her husband's village, meets his spirit along with the spirit of his dog killed on the occasion of his death; the spirit deceives her to the land of the dead across the river on the way offers to eat the dead blood of his wounds, leaves infested with caterpillars; in the village of the dead, after dinner, the husband's spirit and the spirit of his dog go to bed, throwing off their skin and flesh, leaving only bones; girl gets scared, starts screaming; This is the custom of our land, they tell her; the husband and his dog put their flesh and skin back, but leave their faces shapeless; the girl is even more scared; in the land of the dead, she has Many children were born]: Berndt 1966:250-252; D'Entrecasteau [the dead go to Wafolo (an uninhabited NW part of Fr. Fergusson); someone whose phalanx is not cut off is killed and eaten by guarding dogs]: Jenness, Ballantyne 1920:145; Bining (Mali) []: Laufer 1946-1949:532; Nguna (New Hebrides) [the lower world consists of three tiers or departments; when the deceased enters his road, he is greeted by Saratau Tata, "Forever Chopping (with an Axe)" and hit the head with an ax; So when a dog owner dies, it is killed at his grave so that the dog accompanies and protects the owner from ST.; the wounds inflicted on ST to the dead are not fatal, all the dead reach Saratau Vakale (= Always Good), who washes and bandages wounds]: Schütz 1969:229-230.

Tibet is the Northeast of India. Ao: Mills 1926:231 [Those who treated dogs badly during their lifetime, in the world of the dead, after living there for another life and dying again, end up in a village where they take the position of dogs, and dogs owners], 278 [when a famous warrior or hunter is buried, a dog is killed so that it protects it from the spirits of its victims on the way to the world of the dead]; sema [when lowering the body into the grave, they are usually killed favorite dog so that its soul accompanies the owner]: Hutton 1921:71; rengma [at the entrance to the world of the dead, his mistress hits the person who comes in the face, he forgets about his life on earth; then he meets all the people and animals he kills, but the dog kills them at his funeral scares them away; a chicken slaughtered at a funeral digs the ground with its paws to get water for the deceased (or a lizard pulls water, so rangma does not kill them); in the afterlife, all people exactly repeat their lives on earth, and so on seven times in the number of layers of the earth; then those who can sing become crickets, and those who do not know how to butterflies; these Humans don't kill insects]: Mills 1937:169-171.

Burma - Indochina. Khyengi [Ngathein rules the trial of the dead under the tree; on the way to him, souls wait and destroy caterpillars; a rooster tied to the leg of the deceased must scare them away; a sword placed on his head, must scare away evil spirits; the soul crosses the river across a thread bridge; N. sends the souls of bad people to an iron pot of boiling water; if the soul runs away, the dog N. catches it; if he tries to hide in the crown of a tree, then falls victim to the Hakgyi bird]: Chesnov 1982r: 206.

South Asia. Ancient India (Rigveda X, 14) [King of the Dead Yama was accompanied by two dogs that guarded his kingdom and brought the souls of the dead there]: Vasilkov, Neveleva 1987 [the soul of the deceased is accompanied by The afterlife of Yama is two dogs, Shyama (Dark) and Shabala (Gray); they drive away other dogs from the deceased, but they are also very ferocious, so that the friends of the deceased try to propitiate them by feeding their dogs, living on earth; every day during a Vaishvadeva, a brahmana must throw rice or bread to the dog, saying, I give food to two dogs, Shyama and Shabala from the Vaivasvata family, to protect me on mine ( posthumous) path]: 606; Elezarenkova 1972:199 [your two dogs, oh Yama, watchmen, four-eyed, guarding the path, overseeing people, two life thieves with broad nostrils, two messengers of Yama, roam they are among humans], 353 [in Atharvaveda, Yama was the first to die; his dog names are Śyāma and Śabala]; Boyce 1984 [the Veda describes two dogs, Yama's messengers, tracking down those who are about to die and accompanying their souls to another world]: 145; Temkin, Erman 1982, No. 40 [the world of ancestors is guarded by Sharbar's two colorful and four-eyed dogs, Sarama's offspring; Sharbara (Shabala) is "spotted", perhaps kinship. Greek Kerberos; in a number of texts this is the name of only one of the dogs, the other is called Udumbala ("black")]: 97, 254 (note); Khismatulin, Kryukova 1997 [in Rigveda, Yama's dogs, "broad-nosed, four-eyed, spotted", looking for people who are destined to die, deliver them to Yama]: 237; Western India [Modi 1922:58-59; Western India believes that the deceased is accompanied by his faithful dog]: Litvinsky, Sedov 1984:166; pulaya [on the way to hell or heaven, the deceased must cross the river, then walk along a hair-thick rope over a hole with leeches and a pit of fire; on the sides of the fire pit two dogs; a person who is cruel to humans and animals is burned, eaten by leeches or dogs; a moral person comes safely to Deiwan; he puts his soul into a born baby]: Thaliath 1956:1036; (cf. cat [a bridge as thin as a thread leads to the world of the dead; if a person respected parents, etc., he easily crosses it; if he behaved badly, the cat runs up and breaks the thread, the person falls into the abyss, where for a long time tormented by fire, torn and eaten by predators and insects]: Emeneau 1946, No. 12:195).

Malaysia-Indonesia. Hay (basisi) [those who are afraid of a ferocious dog at the fork in the land of the dead take a path leading to a log; from there they fall into a lake of boiling water]: Skeat, Blagden 1906:299; Nias [on the way to heaven, the deceased must cross the bridge; the guard finds out whether the person has committed crimes, whether he has organized holidays properly; a cat nearby throws the perpetrators from bridge to hell, especially those who offended cats during their lifetime]: Loeb 1935:153); clementane (Malanaus band) [the deceased moves to another world by log; he is frightened by a double-headed dog {apparently throws Ash is in his face; another character does this, but apparently means that the dog does the same}; to appease the dog, a valuable bead is tied to the deceased's right hand]: Hose, McDougall 1912:45; Eastern Toraja [(not known everywhere, but only in Meerstreek); on the way of the deceased, two heavy stones crashing against each other; if they do not want to miss the soul, they give off thunder and lightning; the soul throws sirih-pinang at them, manages to slip through while the stones diverge; a barking dog and a scratching cat are waiting on the path; whoever is afraid of them must wait for the heavenly inhabitants to drive the animal away] : Adriani, Kruyt 1950, No. 42:470

Taiwan - Philippines. Visayas: Gaverza 2014:62 [Lobo is a dog guarding the entrance to the lower world], 141 [Tan Mulong and his dog with one nipple and two sets of genitals grab and enclose people's souls in a cave].

China - Korea. Meo [a bound thief breaks the bones of his arms and legs with batons, puts him in a grave, ties a dog to him, and both are buried alive; the dog, the animal of the dead (Totentier), must prevent his soul thief escape]: Leuschner in Koppers 1930:386; the Chinese (Shandong) [put tortillas with their hair baked in them; when hellish dogs throw themselves at them, they will chew them for a long time and the soul will have time to chew them pass by]: Eberhard 1968:464; Chinese (Jiangsu, link to a Chinese source) [after the deceased was disguised, it was necessary to make balls out of 7 longyang fruits and flour and tie them to with the deceased's comma, because after death you have to pass through the village of Angry Dogs; to distract them, you have to carry these cookies with you]: Kudinova 2017:185.

The Balkans. Ancient Greece: Mallory, Adams 2006 [kérberos and Śorvara (one of Yima's dogs) - from Proto-Indo-European *kérbēros - spotted]: 439; Hes. Theog. 769-774 ["A ruthless and terrible dog sits in front of the entrance./With an evil, insidious habit: he meets everyone who comes, /Wagging his tail gently, moving his ears good-natured. /No one goes back gives, but, apparently, enough/ And devours whoever tries to leave the kingdom/The powerful god Hades and Persephone the terrible" (trans. V.V. Veresayev)]; [Orpheus, who came to Hades for Argiopa (Eurydice), met a three-headed dog]: Herm. Col. Fr. 1 (Powell). 10-12; [in Aida, a three-headed Kerber sits at the gates of Acheron]: Apollod. Bibl. II. 5:12; [Charon transports Aeneas and the priestess of Apollo through the Stygian swamps; they meet three-headed Kerber guarding the way to the realm of the dead; the priestess throws Kerber a cake filled with sleeping pills, who She eats her and falls asleep; the priestess and Aeneas continue their journey]: Verg. Aen. VI. 415-424; Bulgarians [in the next world, a dog carries water into its mouth and floods a hellfire, and a cat inflates it]: Belova 2004, No. 380:179; (cf. Bulgarians (western Bulgaria) [souls of sinful Turks turn into pigs and righteous souls into dogs sitting on wicker mats at the gates of Christian paradise]: Belova, Petrukhin 2004:263); Albanians [Bukura e dheut, "Beauty of the Earth" is a female chthonic deity, guarded in the lower world by a three-headed dog; she has drugs against death; during the day it hangs on top of a tree, divided into 4 parts; in black skin is bad, if it takes off, good; there are skulls around her house; she is the mother of the earth, the equivalent of Pesephona/Demeter; with her, the Beauty of the Sea (the mistress of the seas) and the Beauty of the Sky is a thunder god, in Christian terminology is God; in fairy tales, the Beauty of the Earth is simply beautiful]: Lambertz 1952:209-210; Romanians [on the way to the world of the dead, the soul must propitiate Cerberus by throwing him a wheat flour cake with honey]: Mawers 1992:51; Romanians [the childless Empress finally had a daughter, Luminoară (Little Light, L.); something bothers her, she didn't leave the palace for a long time; when one evening went out, was fascinated by the light of the sun; went to search for the Light of the Sun; taking off the clothes of the murdered warrior, dressed up as a man; she began to serve the master, who was defeated, she came to the spring, next to an old woman, L. exclaimed that she was black as darkness; the old woman was happy that L. called her by name because her name was Darkness; told her to go east and climb the glass mountain; after 12 days L. reached the mountain; blacksmith shod her horse and he climbed the mountain; then the plain; she came to the palace, where there were three girls; they first called her brother, but she explained that she was also a girl; when she saw that L. was sad, the sisters gave her a gift sword: if removed from its scabbard, the enemy army will die, only the leader will remain; L. went further east, destroyed the king's opponents, and he married her against her will; she ran away, went back to east, met a decrepit old man; cut his hair, washed him, he showed the way further east, let the three-headed dog throw a piece of bread; L. threw it, the dog let her through; the light in the palace blinds her eyes, she drank from the spring, then she was able to look; reached her goal by going beyond Sunlight; but his jealous mother turned her into a lark; since then he has been trying to fly closer to to the sun]: Rev. de trad. pop. 8, 598 in Dähnhardt 1910:387-389.

Central Europe. Russians: Belova 2004, No. 380 (Yaroslavskaya) [in the next world, the soul of a deceased person will first of all be met by a cat; if the deceased treated cats affectionately, the cat will see him off during further journey through the afterlife; if you tortured them, cats in the next world will rush at him and scratch and bite it]: 179; Savelyeva, Novikova 2001 (Novgorod) [Cat, along with Wednesday and Friday is a psychopomp]: 37.

Caucasus - Asia Minor. Kalmyks [a four-eyed dog named Hasr is a guide to the underworld]: Bakayeva 2009:31; Abkhazians: Kogonia 2017 [walking along the road, souls come to a stormy stream, over which there is a narrow like a pencil bridge; they are greeted by people who went there before and who divide people into righteous and unrighteous; those who meet hold cats; cat fat is the most slippery; if a person is unrighteous, a cat they kill and grease the bridge; the soul falls into a turbulent stream and falls into boilers with boiling water, where it finally dies; the owner who raised the cat also raised a dog; the dog flows human blood, it understands a person; licks all the fat with his tongue, the soul crosses; a road lined with flowers opens on both sides; girls cook and drink; even if you bite off this heavenly food a little, you will already become full]: 122-123; Chursin 1956 [Nartsey-Tskha is a bridge to the other world; a dog comes and sits there; a cat also comes there, which coats the narrow bridge (sometimes like a thread) with fat so that a person slips off and fell when he crossed into another world; the dog licks fat with its rough tongue and saves the owner; it also leads him across the bridge (goes ahead); in Kodori County: the cat is asked why you are like this you do, the owner always feeds you; "No, I never fed you" - the cat refuses; in fact, the cat eats with its eyes closed; so when you feed your cat, you need to say: "I take Heaven and Earth as witnesses "; numerous images of dogs are found in burials; in Gali County: killing a cat is a sin, in the next world you will not cross the bridge from which a cat licks oil and helps to pass; if it dissatisfied with a person, then he does not lick, a person falls to hell]: 134-135 (retelling in Zukhba 1995:59; briefly in Aqaba 1982:201); Karachays/Balkarians [when a person dies and angels are interrogated his soul, the soul of his dead dog, is trying to protect him; and the cat's soul is to blame him for not taking good care of her; Balkarians: the soul of a deceased person moves into a dog]: Dzhurtubayev 2007:30; Georgians (Ingiloyans) [when entering the afterlife of Gori, there is a resin lake with a narrow sticky bridge across it; the dog licks the surface of the bridge with its tongue to make it easier for people to move to paradise, and the cat licks the surface of the bridge with its tail smears it again with resin; righteous people easily cross the bridge, sinners fall into boiling resin]: Janashvili 1893, No. 12:158.

Iran - Central Asia. Avesta (Vd, XIII) [at the Chinwat Bridge leading to paradise, the soul was greeted by a beautiful maiden, accompanied by two dogs guarding the bridge and fighting evil spirits chasing the soul; for a sinner the bridge narrowed to the blade of a blade, his soul fell into the abyss, drawn by an ugly witch; whoever kills a shepherd, hunting, guard dog, dogs at the Chinwad Bridge will not help; he will hurt his soul nine generations, if they do not atone for sin; whoever hurts a dog or deprives it of food must be whipped; the souls of dead dogs come to water springs; there, out of a thousand females and a thousand males, two appear otters are female and male; the one who killed an otter causes pasture drought]: Berestnev 1999:46; Kryukova 1999:17-20, 23-24 (Vd, XV) [harming a dog, especially a pregnant female, is equivalent to such sins as a transition to another creed and intercourse with a woman who has not cleansed herself after childbirth]; Boyce 1989:145 [in Avesta, two dogs are waiting for the souls of the dead at the Chinwat Bridge], 146, note 14 [in a seemingly late legend about Zarringosh (Yellow Ears) is a dog created by Ohrmazd to protect Adam's physical body from Ahriman, but who is at the Chinwat Bridge, where he barks, scaring maidens away from the righteous; also helps Mihra identify demons trying to punish sinners more than they deserve; also prevents those who were abusive to dogs during their lifetime from crossing the Chinwat Bridge], 141-142 [Sharifabad, North Plains Yazdi); Muslims are cruel to dogs, considering them unclean, and Zoroastrians on the contrary]; Khismatulin, Kryukova 1997 [(Videvdat, Fragard 5, Transl. and Comm., pp. 235-250); Zoroastrians to perform rituals white dogs with black spots above their eyes are used whenever possible; "four-eyed" means the ability of dogs to see death; this is associated with the sagdid ritual (novopers. "dog look", dog examination" when the dog drives the death maiden Druhsh-ya Nasu away from the dead body of a person or another dog (arrives from the cold north, where Zoroastrian hell is located)] : 236-237.

Baltoscandia. Finns: Eichenwald et al. 1982 [There is a stream of fire under the ground, which the dead must cross by boat, cross a bridge, or wade; guards with iron are waiting for them on the other side teeth and three dogs]: 164; Holmberg 1927 [Manalan-Rakki ("dog of the land of the dead") barking angrily resembles the Greek Cerberus]: 75; Harva 1948:50-58, 63-65 in Napolskikh 1992 [Pohjola is guarded by the Dog Poh elas; there all the waters of the earth fall into the abyss - the lower world]: 6; Rantasalo 1945 [the hairy caterpillar is called the "dog of the lower world" (Tuonen koira) or "Ukko dog"; its appearance heralds death; blue spots on the skin are the "bite" of a similar dog (Tuonen koiran purema)]: 56-57; the Veps [during sorochin until noon, the Veps accompanied the soul of the deceased to the crossroads; there some were eaten by themselves, some were left for dogs]: Vinokurova 2006:336.

Volga - Perm. Komi-Permyaks [in the Komi-Permyatsky Autonomous District, it is widely believed that a dog after a person dies is the "first meeting" in the next world; sometimes a cat and a dog, but never one cat; "There is no need to offend dogs, this is the first meeting"]: Queen 2004; the Udmurts [the Udmurts gave food donated to the deceased to dogs, otherwise it was believed that she would not reach the dead]: Gerd 1993:28 in Vinokurova 2006:336; Marie: Kuznetsov 1904 [hellish dogs (támuk /ad/pi/dog/) roam at the entrance to the afterlife, which must be fought off with a lime or rowan stick; the owner of the afterlife is Támuk Vui ("head of hell"); Kyamat - from the Arab "resurrection from the dead"; Kyamat töra - "Judge Kyamat", sometimes considered the main one]: 101; Sebeok, Ingemann 1956 [ The owner of the dead is Kiamat töra; sometimes he is considered the first to be buried in this cemetery; his little dog tamak pi (hellish dog; - V. N. ]) attacks a person's soul; to fight back, they put sticks in the hands of the deceased]: 111-112; Chuvash: Salmin 1989 [treating dogs in the cemetery with memorial food was equivalent to eating together with dead, because the dead come to the place of remembrance on the tip of the dog's nose]: 81; 1994 [sacrifice to the spirits of the ancestors consisted in putting aside part of the food (meat, beer, etc.) that was thrown away and poured out; such food was eaten by dogs metaphorically mistaken for spirits; the Udmurts did the same, the contents of the trough were given to dogs]: 88; 2011 [it is believed that when the deceased is lowered into the grave, hit by a black dog with a whip; it is this blow that sends a person to another world]: 127.

Southern Siberia - Mongolia. The Tofalars [on the way to the land of the dead, the deceased had to cross the abyss on a hair-thick rope; this could be done by someone who did not have great sins; the spirits moved the deer to the other side on the other side safe road; on the way to Erlik Khan, you must go through a dog village where dogs died; if a person beat dogs during his lifetime, he must grab a bone for them]: Alekseev 1980: 175; Khakas: Butanayev 2003:62 [Khongorans preferred to keep black and white dogs at home; they were wary of yellow and mukhorta dogs; Saraadai Khan ("king of yellow dogs") is the head of everything dog world; has a dog's body and a human head; in the realm of dead souls judges and punishes the guilty; yellow dogs are his servants; if killed, her soul will go to S.; to avert the danger , the tongue of the killed yellow dog was cut in half, and the body was taken and thrown to Saraaday Köl (Lake. A dog in the July Steppes)], 106 [two black dogs, the size of a calf, named Iger-Kizer and Khazar Pazar, serve as guards at the door of Irlik Khan's yurt]; Tuvans [Khan's son wants to take his wife away Ulberg; she hides her husband; Karabta Khan's son turns into various objects, W. with the help of his wife finds and defeats him every time; then the khan sends W. to Yerlik for a damask knife; ways to a flower meadow, a cliff, a boiling sea must be libated; two women should be given veins for sewing, two camels should drive two pegs into the ground, two dogs a piece of meat, three heroes a lasso; W. takes the knife; they all let W. go back and forth when W. takes the knife and E. chases him; E. kills Khan and his son, takes his knife, beats Yerlik]: Potanin 1883, No. 131:412-416; South Altai Tuvans [on the advice of a horse, Ergen-ool agrees to become a friend of a black snake; he turns into a young man on a blue horse; he sends him to his house, hands him a golden casket there; it contains cattle marks, scissors, needle; he throws it away, in the morning he finds a beautiful woman, a yurt, lots of cattle; Haragathy Haan sends servants to fry quails; the quails burned down, E.'s wife gave them three pieces from the sheep's tail instead, sprinkled with her milk, XX and his people ate this month; XX comes to her yurt, she makes him stick to objects three times at night; E. arrives at the 20th, his horse reaches the clouds with his feet at the withers rolls the boulders of the lower world; XX unsuccessfully tries to poison E. with araka; XX offers to hide; the wife turns E. into an iron on fire, hearth tongs, scissors; tells her husband that XX has become felt fur on the roof of the yurt, reed stem, yellow whip; XX tells you to kill Erlik Haan and return; the wife asks to take sandbags, tendons, leather sticks, sheep's tail with her; on the scorched A black dog is running around the pasture; it must be fed its sheep tail, strangled, its tail put in its mouth; sand must be poured over a snowy mountain to cross it; camels will ask if to scratch about you or yours a horse - give them tanners; women - pull tendons out of you or a horse - give them tendons; in the world, Erlik E. meets that black dog; the dog says that when Erlik is awake, he says, I I sleep, and when I sleep, I don't sleep; by morning Erlik fell asleep, E. tore off a piece of his heart, flew away with a falcon; sees a man leading a black dog; this revived Erlik led to him XX]: Taube 1994, No. 3: 61-69; Altaians [in the Altai epic, there are two identical golden cuckoos on the top of the poplar, whose singing blooms white and blue flowers on the ground; guards are placed in the middle of the poplar the sky is two black golden eagles; at the base of the poplar there are two identical black dogs that protect the earth's routes and the way to the lower world]: Surazakov 1982:101 in Lviv et al. 1988:32; (cf. The Oirats [episode in the epic story: Knight Yergil-Turgul sent his hunting dog in pursuit of a white argali with a gold-haired lamb; argali and lamb jumped over a black hole in sixty fathoms; the dog flew down without noticing anything; E.-T. drove up and found out that it had fallen into a hellhole; "My dear hunting dog, this is how you had to guard the hole of hell," E.-T. thought and went on]: Vladimirtsov 2003:509; Wuhuan [{late Han, language attribution is unknown}; "the Wuhuans, one of the ancient Mongolian tribes, accompanied the coffin with the body of the deceased songs and dances; the dog is fed fat..; a tied dog is sent on purpose after the deceased to protect the spirit of the deceased when he returns to Red Mountain (Chishan) "]: Litvinsky, Sedov 1984:168).

Wed. Western Siberia. The Selkups [{source? check}; Ob-Ugrians, Selkups have a dog who is the guardian of the world of the dead]: Napolskikh 1992:12; Mansi [master of the world of the dead Kul-Otyr, or Shul-Otyr (Prince of Diseases, or Death) has the epithet "devouring big-eyed people barking {Bellender}", i.e. dog]: Munkácsi 1905:120-121; nganasany [Taimyr nganasan Fadopte Kosterkin: Syrada-Nyamy (Ice Mother) lives the lowest; there is a big plague and almost a hundred more dogs; there's Bang Baraba (Dog Chief?) yes; these dogs live together with SG; no one has confirmed that the dogs have a leader near the SN home]: Simchenko 1996 (1): 115).

Eastern Siberia. The Evenks of Manchuria [the Tungus of Manchuria have a role in sending the deceased to the afterlife, which seems to be borrowed from the Manchus]: Shirokogoroff in Koppers 1930: 385.

Amur-Sakhalin. Nanais [if the souls of the dead Amur golds are taken to the afterlife on sledges drawn by dogs, the souls of Garinsky golds are transported by deer; the villages of both are located in different places and the roads leading to them are different; the Samagirs make sure that the shaman, by mistake or ignorance, does not carry the souls of the dead in dogs]: Kozminsky 1929:47; (cf. Ulchi [squirrels, columns, foxes or savensal spirits lead souls to the afterlife]: Smolyak 1980:228-229); Manchus: Gimm 1982 [the dog is the guardian of the other world, the guide of the souls of the dead]: 109; Shirokogoroff in Koppers 1930 [the Tungus of Manchuria have a role in sending the deceased to the afterlife, which seems to be borrowed from the Manchus]: 385; Parker 1924:84 in Koppers 1930 [well-fed dogs are brought to the funeral to accompany the soul on the way to the Red Mountains, located several thousand miles to the NW by Siao Tung]: 386; Udege people: Podmaskin 1991:45 [k in a hole in the west, shamans bring the souls of the dead, hand them over to the mistress of the afterlife; her dog guards the entrance], No. 8 [people did not die; men turned into poplars, women into birch trees; older brother Egdiga hunted, younger Uza was at home; W. sees a shell on the lake, she tells him to dig a hole in the lower world where E. usually sits; otherwise E. will kill all the animals; E. falls into the lower world, but he returns, sends E. there; since then, the souls of the dead have been going there; the dog does not let them go back]: 120; Samar 2008 [during the funeral ceremony, the deceased was put in his hands a cake; this was done for fear that dogs guarding the entrance to the boonies could attack; the cakes were intended for them (Archive of the Society for the Study of the Amur Territory. V.K. Arseniev Foundation. F. 14. Op. 1. D. 446. L. 123)]: 274; Orochi: Bereznitsky 1999 [the dog protected the hunter's soul on its way to the afterlife]: 104; Kreinovich 1930 [(communication. Kozminsky); the afterlife of dogs is located in front of the hole leading to the afterlife of people]: 52; nivkhi: Bereznitsky 2005, No. 143 [in calm weather, people see a rolling circle of birch bark and then a dog with white spots above its eyebrows; there was a camp at this place, everyone died of illness; a birch bark circle and a dog with white spots above the eyebrows are the souls of the dead]: 517; Kreinovich 1930 [there is an afterlife the world of dogs, but it is not known exactly where it is located]: 52.

Japan. Ainu [the soul comes to a fork in the world of the dead; one leads to the village of the gods, the other to the Wet Underworld; dogs are placed along these roads to tell souls where to go]: Batchelor 1927:161; 1944 in Munro 1963:121.

SV Asia. Chukchi [a newcomer to the realm of the dead goes through the dog world; dogs rush at him and bite him if he mistreated them during his lifetime]: Bogoraz 1902:636; 1939:45; Koryaks [one soul goes up to the Supreme Being, another goes down to the first ancestors of Peni'nelau; the entrance is guarded by dogs, dogs that beat dogs are not allowed in; but these guards can be bribed, so they put the deceased in his mittens fish fins, he will give them to dogs guarding the entrance to the world of shadows]: Jochelson 1908:103; tundra yukaghirs (p. Andryushkino, Nizhnekolymsky District) [when a person rides deer after death, dog patron spirits wait for him on both sides of the road; they miss him if he gave bones during his lifetime; on a stinging bone, scolding and beating dogs rush, he does not reach the goal, his soul does not move into the newborn]: Kurilov 2005, No. 34:305; itelmen [Yukaghirs, Koryaks, Chukchi and Itelmen believe that dogs are guarding the entrance into a world of shadows; dead people arriving there must appease dogs; those who tortured dogs during their lifetime meet a terrible reception]: Jochelson 1908:514 (quoted in Koppers 1930:374).

The Arctic. Central Yupik: Edmond 1966 (south Norton Bay) [several villages pass through the soul on the way to the next world; the first is a dog village where dogs attack those who beat them during their lifetime]: 70; Nelson 1899 [ a young woman has died; her late grandfather wakes her up, takes her to the land of the dead; they come to the village; in one house an old woman tries to hit her with a stick, drives her away; the grandfather explains that this is a village of dogs; now a woman understands how dogs suffer when they are beaten; she finds herself by the river of tears shed on the ground for the dead; straw and garbage float along the river, stops in front of her; across this bridge she crosses to another shore; comes to the village of the dead; returns with them to people for the holiday; comes to life because the old woman, her namesake, died instead of her]: 488-490; Labrador Eskimos [the path to the lower world is long a dark path guarded by a dog (? ; Hawkes sign), watching souls]: Hawkes 1916:153; West Greenland [the deceased reaches a house guarded by ferocious animals - seals or dogs; moving along the way inward in the corridor, the deceased must cross the abyss across a knife-sharp bridge]: Rink 1875:40.

Subarctic. Ingalic (Anvik) [a person dies, his soul follows a wide road, from which narrow souls of various animals branch off; he goes through a village of human souls, then dogs; there are two dog souls protect him, this place is dangerous; he crosses in a boat first across the black river, then formed by the dead, then through the bright one that arose from tears shed during mourning; his they send it back, he goes back to his body and talks about what he saw]: Nelson in Vanstone 1978:55-56.

NW Coast. Tlingit: De Laguna 1972 [those who died in wars or accidentally go to heaven in the world of Spolokhov; closer to earth, there is the Sky of Dogs in the clouds; the souls of sorcerers, suicides, and those who killed animals aimlessly; they live there with the souls of dead dogs; men walk upside down in their arms, women walk on all fours]: 771; Swanton 1908b [1) the body was carried out after dismantling the back the wall of the house; then they threw a dead dog (it was supposed to protect the soul from animals attacking it along the way) and sand (it forms a path in front of the soul walking); 2) they threw a live dog to it, and not at a person's living soul was taken over by a (evil) spirit on the path; if he enters the human soul, it will die]: 430.

The Midwest. Menominee [the soul of the deceased approaches the river beyond which is the village of the dead; it is ruled by Naspateo, Menebus's younger brother; a slippery log spans the river; a huge dog, chief all terrestrial dogs, does not allow those who committed crimes or mistreated dogs and wolves during their lifetime; the newcomer is washed in a huge wooden vessel; he is healed from an illness or The wounds that caused death forget the past]: Skinner 1913:86; Winnebago [the old man lives alone with four dogs; breaks his leg, dogs hunt for him; he gives sacred power to three; fourth repels enemy attacks; gains the ability to hunt night and day, becomes the Gray Wolf, the patron saint of humans; her brothers Green, Black and White Wolves become patrons of the lower world]: Smith 1997:158-160; Western Ojibwa: Beck et al. 2001 (Minnesota) [the deceased goes to the land of successful hunting; he is guarded at the fork by a big dog; lets in those who were kind to dogs]: 199; Jones 1916 [world dead in the west; on the way, the soul was in danger: blueberries and raspberries, a log over a fast river, dogs, an old woman]: 382; 1919, No. 1 [a sick young man loses consciousness, walks along the path; a log across a turbulent river with dogs are guarding both sides; there is a rope with dried cucumbers above the log; if you touch them, they rattle, dogs jump up; but the young man passes; in the village of the dead, his dead grandmother explains that because he is still young, he did not harm the dogs, and whoever was unkind to them, they bark at him and the man falls into the river; the young man is not dead, so the dead smell him; in the evening they dance, some without legs, others without hands, some walk upside down because they were killed this way; when the spirits dance, we see the northern lights; on the way back, the young man sees the fire, rushes at it, wakes up]: 3-23; Jones 1919, No. 1 [the deceased young man walks along a dusty road, unable to catch up with the dead baby, struggling to carry the board to which he was tied on his back; the young man approaches the stormy river, with a trembling log laid through it; c dogs guard this bridge on both sides; a vine with wild cucumbers hangs over the bridge; when touched, the fruits rattle, the dogs rush at the passer; the young man passes without touching the fruit without waking up dogs; comes to the village of the dead, enters the wigwam at a distance; the owner of the dead says that the young man came here in the flesh, it is not time for him to die yet, let him return; explains that dogs push those into the river , who treated dogs badly during his lifetime; the dead are seen only at night; the young man sees his grandmother, she eats a rotten tree, offers him, he refuses; at night the dead dance, some have no head or arm, legs, some upside down; those who lost arms, legs, etc. in the war remain so; on the way back, the young man does not meet the river; tries to talk to the people he meets, grabs them, cannot; sees fire, rushes at him, wakes up; tells his mother that his deceased grandmother explained to him that the northern lights are the dead dancing]: 3-23; Eastern Ojibwa (southern Ontario)] [young wife dies; husband stays at the grave; as soon as he closes his eyes, sees his wife come out of the grave and walk away; he walks behind, sleeps some distance away about the place where she stayed; a house nearby; someone (this is Nanabush ) says that there are all dogs that a person has ever owned; if you do harm to them, they will take revenge; this someone gives bags of shoes; when dogs attack, a person throws their shoes and they tear them without touching them man; then there is another house, his name is, but the man does not go in; finally, the last one, there are empty, only small beds; N. says that when the spirit enters the house, it becomes invisible; but promises to help, hiding the person who has come in his pocket; at night, the perfume will begin to dance on the occasion of the arrival of the new deceased; the man saw, grabbed his wife, put it in a box; there is some kind of rubbing in the second box; the person teaches: You got here in two years, and you'll be back in two days; you have to heat two pebbles at home, put them in a box of rubbing to melt, cover both boxes and yourself with a blanket; if your wife talks, so she came to life; everything was successful; parents came to visit the grave and saw the young couple alive]: Laidlaw 1915, No. 18:14-15; northern solto [the deceased crosses the river on a slippery log; the author did not hear stories about a watchdog and a moving sharp-edged shoulder blade, but these obstacles are described in the Aási adventure story]: Hallowell 1940:34.

Northeast. The Algonquins of New England (Massachusetts) [... they believe in the immortality of the soul that must enter the Elysium in the southeast... at the door of Elysium, a big dog greets them with a formidable growl; to fight off they put a bow and arrow in his graves; they also put wampum and Mowhackies to acquire greater privileges in another world]: Wood 1634 in Schwartz 1997:93; in Skinner 1913:90; Delaware: Bierhorst 1995, No. 151 [dogs must be well treated; they guard the bridge at the fork in the Milky Way, where the way to the afterlife lies], 194 [dogs guard the log that serves as a bridge to heaven; the souls of those who are ill during their lifetime treated dogs, they push logs into the water]: 65, 73; hurons: Sagart-Theodat in Schwartz 1997 [souls go to the afterlife along the Milky Way; along a nearby path, also marked by stars and called the "dog path", dog souls go]: 93; Thwaites 1896-1901 (10) [souls on their way to the world of the dead must cross the river by log; he is guarded by a dog that rushes at many and pushes into the river, where they drown]: 147 and Lafitau 1974:253 [at the other end of the bridge, a dog attacks many and pushes them down] in Mathews 1982:48; Iroquois [Rev. Mr. Kirkland: Five Nations believe that suicides are violators of Council orders Chiefs and those who leave pregnant wives will not be able to reach the blessed country of Eskanane after the death of the blessed country; on the way there is a deep dark ravine; seeing the suicide, the guide refuses to help him; he steps on a shaky log, falls; at the bottom of the ravine lives a huge dog; he has scabies, he is angry; all those who fall get this disease from him and suffer; idiots and dogs also get there, but this is their life the place is slightly better]: Beauchamp 1922:158-159.

Southeast USA. Shawnee: Skinner 1913 [see menominee materials; "Harrington claims this same belief is even more common among Shawnee"]: 86 (note 3); Voegelin, Gregg in Gayton 1935 ["In the myth of the story Orpheus has common motives with yuchi's texts; as well as the water barrier and dog guard characteristic of East Woodland; as well as scenes of punishing evil in the afterlife "]: 274; chirokee [Sirius and Antares are two dog stars opposite each other, where the Milky Way meets the horizon; they cannot be seen at the same time; the soul crosses the stream on a thin perch, villains fall off it; the rest continue to go east and then west; at the entrance at the fork in the road, you must feed the dog well; going on, the soul meets the second dog and also feeds; whoever has little food with them may find himself unable to escape the second dog and will wander between the two forever]: Hagar 1906:362-363; (cf. Chickasaw [The Milky Way - "White Dog Road" (explanation lost)]: Swanton 1928b:251).

NW Mexico. Huichol: Berrin 1978 [painting of colored threads on the same plot as Furst 1967:69 (first published in Furst 1968-1969)]: 26; Furst 1967:69 [the soul of the deceased throws five tortillas to the dog; while that eats, has time to pass; otherwise the dog will bite], fig.1 [painting of colored threads: a fork in the road in the world of the dead; on the right road, a watchdog, a hungry crow that will not feed the visitor, and opossum that made a trap for those who ate possum meat during their lifetime]; Leal Carretero 1997 [the deceased meets dogs on his way; killing dogs during his lifetime is bad; dogs should be given tortilla, otherwise bite]: 39; Zingg 1938, No. 4b [TumusAúwi shaman and his wife must abstinence for five years; after the fourth year, the wife got drunk, got together with Mexicans; their child fell ill, T. began to beat his wife, after that, the child died; Kauymáli asked her to marry him, but she died; K. came to the world of the dead, the gods of the sea gave him a bamboo jar with a cotton cork, told him not to open it on the way; letting him into his wife's heel is a magic arrow thorn, K. turned his wife into a fly, put it in a vessel; hears his wife asking to open it; on the fifth night K. opens the vessel, the wife turns into a fly, flies away; K. comes to the gods again, but they only teach him funeral rituals; other dead people beat the deceased to blood because she wasted corn; as a child she broke an oak branch; now those who bitten her have descended from the broken place lice, and a branch grabbed her, pulled her away; the woman was grabbed and raped by an animal she had once trapped; the path was guarded by a larva, and on either side were two dogs she once had starved; now they bit her; the turtledove wanted to give her a tortilla, but the crow did not allow it, for she teased the crow because of its long beak; when K. returned, released the birds caught for his wife; therefore, there are many beautiful birds in the mountains]: 544-546 (=1982:235-236); bark (Colima) [running away from the impending flood, people follow the dog's trail to the mountain; the dog hits the drum, causing waves rise; people climb the mountain; most starve to death, the rest are human ancestors; the dog hides in a big lake, where it is visited by the souls of the dead on their way to their last abode]: Juan Suarez de Cepeda, 1581. Relaciones de los Indios Colimas de Nueva España in Winning 1974:43.

Mesoamerica The Aztecs [put a small yellow dog with a leash around its neck in the grave with the deceased; it must transport it across nine rivers in the land of the dead; the dog transported the deceased when it recognized him their owner; that's why people raise dogs]: Sahagun 1978:43-44 (quoted in Launey 1980:293, Furst 1967:69, Schwartz 1997:94); Nahua [three or four small tortillas are placed in the grave; the dead gives to their black dog, who carries him on her back across the river on its way to another world; they put a rod to the right of the body to drive away boring dogs in the world of the dead]: Madsen 1960:210; otomi: Galinier 1990 [in the coffin they put a clay dog; it will transport the soul across the river (without the motive of a good/bad owner)]: 210; Garibay 1957b [put un manojo de grama or pasto with the deceased, explaining what it is for Chivu, whom the soul meets on the way to the next world, and that they used to put dog cake]: 218; mestizos of Mexico: Parsons 1936:499, note 45 (Federal District), 46 (Jalisco); Milpa Alta, Federal District [the dead cross the river; they are helped by dogs if they treated them well during their lifetime; black or yellow (brown?) Comes by herself and is lucky on her back; white should be begged]: Horcasitas, Ford 1979:13; Huastecs [teens believe that dogs accompany the soul to the afterlife and help it on its journey; so people should be good treat your dogs (in practice people are cruel to dogs, they speak mostly Spanish)]: Ariel de Vidas 2002:536; coastal Totonaks [see motif A24; ancestors live in the dark cold world; only the heavenly serpent shines - the Milky Way; its mouth is open; a lizard finds a hot stone, cooks on it; four birds manage to break a stone, get a shining egg; animals they bring it to the spring; an orphan girl finds an egg, brings it home; it returns to the spring three times; on the fourth, the girl grabs it with her teeth, it bursts, she swallows it; nine days later gives birth to twin sons; the first to be born stronger; the girl dies, her grandmother leaves babies on the branches of the mageian, they do not die; puts an anon on a tree, whose fruits look like women's breasts; babies they eat honey like hummingbirds; the old woman is happy to bring them home; the Great Serpent shines poorly, feeds on young girls; brothers heat stones in the temazcal, throw them into his mouth; it becomes completely dark, many people turn into stones and idols; brothers send a green fly to check if the serpent is dead; it flies into the mouth, flies out of the anus - dead; the elder tells the animals that he will become the Sun; they are not must show his younger brother the path he took; the youngest spends time at the holidays; explains to numerous mistresses that he will be the sun; the elder tells the animals to make a fire, jumps into him from the mountain, flies east; his uncle comes later, when the coals are almost extinguished, follows him; his younger brother finds one ash, animals show him the way west; the old man predicts that three will soon appear in heaven; he is considered a madman, thrown to the ground; he turns into a dog, says he will guide the souls of the dead, leading them to the Sun on his trail; the Morning Star rises, everything ancestors (tutu na cu) die; the dog takes their souls to the Sun, which judges them; tells the good ones to repopulate the earth]: Münch 1993:37-40; Zapoteci [if a person treated dogs well during his lifetime, black the dog carries his soul across the river]: Parsons 1936:152-153; the Zapotecs, the Mixtecs [the Mixtecs and the Zapotecs also believe that the black dog is the primary guide of souls to the world of the dead]: Cruz 1946:205; Masateki: Inch áustegui 1977 [after the owner's death, his dog helps him cross the river into the land of the dead; people should be nice to dogs; don't feed them by hand, but throw food on the ground]: 158; Villa 1955 [ a black dog waits for a soul by the river to transport it to the other side]: 120; Miche [the soul of the deceased throws cakes to the dogs to allow them to pass]: Gillow 1899 in Villa 1955:120; tsotsil: Gossen 1974, No. 78 [ the wife died, the husband went for her, crossed the lake with the help of a black dog; three days later he returned, died]: 293; Guiteras Holmes 1961 [The dead cross the river with the help of a black dog]: 143; Pérez López 1996 [a black dog goes from afar looking for someone to take it; in one house they only give him a stale cake, and nothing in the morning, he moves on, a little hungry; he decides to go to the Master Land whose house inside the mountain the souls of the dead go; dies; the Master of the Earth tells his soul that the time of his death has not yet come; leads him to a hot river inside the cave; the dog will transport the good ones who treated dogs well; evil ones should wait for good people to cross and then carry good things; on earth, the dog will protect good owners from the devil; the devil (pujuk) should be offered count all the hairs on the dog's tail before dawn; if the person is bad, the devil will have time to count; the dog returns to earth, picks him up by the boy K 'ox, gives him the name Max (" Monkey", because he is black like a monkey); when K. fell ill, M. asked the devil to count the hairs; pulls his tail, knocking him off count; the boy recovers]: 111-127; lacandons: Boremanse 1986:74 [the soul throws bones to dogs, grain to chickens, hair to lice], 83 [the soul comes to the river of tears shed by relatives; gives bone to the dog; if a person was kind to the dog during his lifetime, that transports across a crocodile-infested river]; classic Mayans [" Tikal graffiti depicts warriors or women leading a dog; we have before us the dogs mentioned in the sources of sacrifice, who were considered conductors of souls from the world of the living to the world of the dead "]: Borodatova 1996:178.

Honduras vs Panama. Hikake [on the way to the world of the dead, a soul comes to the river; the dog says that once its owner has fed it, he can grab its tail; it transports it to the other side; therefore, dogs must be fed]: Chapman 1982:233; 1992:237; miskito [dog paddles, carrying the soul of the deceased in a boat]: Conzemius 1932:155; frame [on their way to the world of dead souls cross a pond, then meet the Huge Dog; the souls of bad people drown or eaten by a dog, good souls pass safely]: Conzemius 1927:323; talamanca (cabecar and/or bribri) [after death, a dog carries his soul across the river]: Nordenskiöld 1938:445.

Wed. The Antilles. {This is a combination from Pane ("zemi Opigielguoviran" had four legs like a dog", Rodríguez Alvárez 2009:40-43) and interpretations by other authors. Pane has two chapters, XII and XIII, describing the world of the dead Coaibai, which does not mention any guards}. Taino [gatekeeper dog sitting on the edge of a lake, watchman going out and entering the world of the dead called Koaibai]: Pane in Schwarz 1997:97-98).

The Northern Andes. Kogi: Reichel-Dolmatoff [a dog waits for a soul on the river bank; the deceased takes out his jaw, pays for transportation; people should be kind to their dogs] 1984:66; 1985 (2): 153; Wavrin 1937 [four the first mama (priest), Sarancua, Seücuque, Aruhuavico, Sintana, send a black dog to carry a soul across the river into the world of the dead]: 532; yupa [on the other side of the river or lake awaits a huge soul dog; refuses to transport those who were cruel to dogs]: Villamañan 1982, No. 2 [other animals can also serve as carriers], 4:19-20; Wilbert 1974, No. 6 [others envy the young man she went with after the holiday, a girl; they kill him, bury him in the forest; the girl cries at the grave for a week; the young man appears, she follows him, he looks like a cloud, a whirlwind; they come to Lord Kopecho of the Frogs; he tells weave a hat for a young man, a basket for a girl; happy with a hat, not with a basket; sends him and her along different paths; animals rush at her, but retreat at the last moment; there is a hollow moving across the river log; those who fell in vain try to cling to the girl; everything is calm on the other side; the trails have come together again; the girl's path was the Path of the Worthless People (she did not weave a good basket); she reached the end trails because she was alive; there was a wall around the Land of the Dead, she had a club, a young man broke through the wall with a club; then the river, on the other side there was a dog, she swam across this one, told the young man to hold on to her ear; without help a dog, the deceased cannot swim across the river; a live girl swam across by herself; those who beat dogs during their lifetime must wait a long time to cross; therefore, dogs are not beaten; in the village of the dead, the young man pretends man; the girl has been living with the dead for several years; their life is no different from the life of the living; but if someone got along with her, she would die; when she returned, the girl kept a secret, but once she was drunk, she was all told; then pierced herself with an arrow]: 80-83; mestizos in Aritama district in St Colombia [the souls of the dead meet tears, milk, blood on the way; a black, white, red dog transports accordingly those who were kind to dogs during their lifetime]: Reichel-Dolmatoff, Reichel-Dolmatoff 196:380.

Guiana. Kalinha: Goeje 1943 [the deceased comes first to the Toad Grandfather, then to the Dog Grandfather, tells us whether he killed toads and dogs respectively; after getting rid of evil thoughts, he finally comes to the village deities], no. a12, c29:12, 84; Ahlbrinck 1931:206-208 in Magaña 1987 [a huge dog guards the river that souls must cross]: 219; curl [rising to the sky, the soul of the deceased meets mother dog; she asks if the deceased was kind to dogs and human friends during his lifetime; if he was kind, the dog runs up, wagging its tail, Mother feeds and wateres the arrived; if not, the dog rushes to him]: Goeje 1943, No. a10:11; taulipan: Koch-Grünberg 1923 [the soul goes east, where Aimalága-Pódole, Father of Dogs, lives; he has many dogs; if the owner mistreated the dog, then after Death comes to the Dog Master and complains; he allows the dog's soul to bite the owner's soul when it comes]: 173; Lowie 1948 [the dog leads the souls of the dead along the Milky Way to their heavenly abode; kills those who treated dogs badly]: 47-48.

Western Amazon. Shuar [one woman did not feed her dog, she died, the woman threw the corpse into the trash; the dog appeared to her in a dream to say that she would die soon; the woman died a few days later, her soul fell into volcano fire; the dog did not carry water in its ears to refresh the owner's soul like other dogs, but only fanned the fire]: Pelizzaro 1990 (=1993): 95-96.

NW Amazon. Letuama [in the next world, a dog meets a deceased person; if a person was kind to her during his lifetime, he gets good food; if he is cruel, excrement]: Palma 1984:175.

The Central Andes. Huanca [a dog is placed in the grave at the feet of the deceased; on the way to the next world, the soul passes through a waterless country and the dog brings water in her ear]: Villanes Cairo 1978:64; mountains of central Peru [mountainous inhabitants regions believe that the souls of the dead go to Ypamarca ("Silent Country"); they must cross the river along a thin hair bridge; black dogs, which are raised for this purpose, help them do this]: Arriaga 1910 ( 1621), cap. VII: 40-41; Wakirka (dep. Ayacucho, prov. Andamarca) [the soul of the deceased travels west through the city of dogs and through Mapa Mayo ("A River of Abomination, Mud"), sometimes crossing it on the back of a black dog]: Gose 1994:125 in Bolton 2002:391-392; Quechua (mountains of central Peru) [souls walk across a bridge of hair, helped by dogs]: Taylor 1980:54; the mountains of Central Peru? [the souls of the dead cross the hair bridge over the river, pass by (?) black dogs; these are specially raised and killed (at funerals?)] : Arriaga 1910 [1621], ch. 7:41; Sonko, prov. Paucartambo, dep. Cusco [the Yahuar Maya blood river separates our world (kai pacha) from the world of the dead; the soul is transported through it by a black, brown or motley dog; at night, the girl's head flies away; this happens with looking for sexual adventures; when the head returned, found the door closed, clung to the shoulder of a passerby; the headless body died; the girl's dog recognized the mistress's head on the man's shoulder; transported the man across the Blood River, where the head jumped on its body; the dog began to drink from the blood river, transported the man to our world]: Allen 1988:61; Pampallacta (prov. Tracing paper, dep. Cusco) [the soul goes to another world accompanied by a llama carrying luggage and a dog; the dog protects the owner when he passes through a dog village (alqu llaqta), but only if he fed and did not beat the dog; then by the river, the deceased asks dogs to carry him on his back until the black one agrees; he himself would not be able to fight the current; therefore, a black dog is killed at a funeral; the white dog does not transport , even if the deceased treated her well; white dogs are misti ("mestizos", people outside the community organization)]: Robin Azevedo 2004:146, 149; Aymara (Kakachaka, dep. Potosi) [black dogs carry the souls of the dead across the river]: Albo in Bastien 1989:81; Aymara, prov. Lipes Court, dep. Potosi [during the ocho dias ritual, our owner's son offered to kill the dead woman's black dog to accompany her on the afterlife]: Bolton 2002:392 (note 38).

Montagna - Jurua. Ashaninka: Roe 1982 (Pajonal campa) [dog takes the dead as their guide]: 338; Weiss 1975 (river camps) [after suffering in the lower world, sex taboo violators climb to mountains clinging to the dog's tail]: 438; machigenga [in the lower world, a big dog (otherwise a monkey) guards the dead]: Baer 1984:231 (=1994:146); shipibo [after death, three souls leave the body; one from them, he goes to a large lake, where he meets the Dog Owner living in Dog Village; if during his lifetime a person treated his dogs badly and fed them only bones, the Dog Owner also will offer the soul bones without meat]: Roe 1993 in Schwarz 1997:97.

Eastern Brazil. Sherente [a man's story about his soul's journey to heaven and return; the road goes along the lake; a dog began to bark heartily ahead of the trail; she warned of a monster hiding in the reeds; It looked like a black man with a monkey tail and a knife in his hand; I killed him; a narrow bridge for robbers led across the river; I took a straight road past the village of the dead to heaven; there were houses of the Sun, the Month, Venus and others; Venus helped my soul get back into my body]: Nimuendaju 1942:91.